On a cold December evening inRosa Parks quietly incited a revolution — by just sitting down. She was tired after spending the day at work as a department store seamstress.
In fact, Rosa Parks was just 42 years old when she took that famous ride on a City Lines bus in Montgomery — a town known for being the first capital of the pro-slavery Confederacy during the American Civil War. She had also attended the controversial Highlander Folk School in Tennessee, where a of African Americans were trained in protest methods by labour radicals. Nixon set about mobilising a community-wide boycott of the buses. This judicial success proved to be a false dawn for the civil rights movement in the United States.
Even today, the Black Lives Matter movement in the United States — sparked by the unlawful police killing of African Americans — demonstrates that the activist spirit unleashed in Montgomery in lives on. Martin Luther King and other prominent activists soon found that the Eisenhower administration had no intention of attacking racial segregation in the South with genuine vigour.
Or so the story goes. Rosa Parks died in She earned her place in history, alongside hundreds of other brave men and women who helped end racial segregation by statute.
Robert Cook does not work for, consult, own shares in or receive funding from any company or organisation that would benefit from this article, and has disclosed no relevant affiliations beyond their academic appointment. The US civil rights movement also had a ificant impact on racial protest in other parts of the world.
Meanwhile, in the United Kingdom, it was an inspiration for the Bristol bus boycott of and the Northern Ireland civil rights demonstrations later in the decade. Plymouth Contemporary — Plymouth, Devon. In Novemberthe US Supreme Court issued a brief and narrow ruling that, in the wake of the Brown decision, racial segregation on private buses in Montgomery was unlawful under the Fourteenth Amendment. Her defiance sparked the push for racial equality, which brought civil rights superstars such as Martin Luther King Jr into the public eye, and changed the world forever.
It all began in Decemberwhen Parks was arrested for civil disobedience: she had refused to give up her seat to a white passenger on a crowded bus in the racially segregated town of Montgomery, Alabama. Robert CookUniversity of Sussex.
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Rosa Parks has gone down in history as an ordinary, elderly black woman who spontaneously kick-started the modern African American civil rights movement. The truth — as is so often the case — is actually far more complicated.
Johns Hopkins University Press. Edition: Available editions United Kingdom.
The nonviolent direct action protests that followed in cities such as Birmingham and Selma would eventually bring African Americans in the South an unprecedented degree of political and social power.